Understanding the Pathogenesis of Anemia of CKD

0.25 CME
0.25 CME with ABIM MOC
$0 FEE
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Understanding the Pathogenesis of Anemia of CKD


Provider Statement

This continuing medical education activity is provided by Vindico Medical Education

Support Statement

This educational activity is supported by an educational grant from GlaxoSmithKline.

Activity Description

Anemia is common among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It underlies many of the symptoms affiliated with reduced kidney function and is associated with increased mortality and hospitalizations. Anemia is common among nondialysis CKD patients, and the prevalence increases as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines. Many patients with anemia of CKD are not receiving treatment for this disease. If not effectively managed, anemia may lead to cardiovascular disease, stroke, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular-related complications, and death. Current guidelines state that iron and erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are the primary therapeutic options for anemia of CKD. Moreover, investigational agents are currently being analyzed in clinical trials, and these therapies could have a huge impact on the future treatment of this condition. These include hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF PHIs), which are a novel class of oral ESAs that have been examined for treatment of anemia of CKD. Unlike other ESAs that replace endogenous erythropoietin, HIF PHIs stimulate transcription of the erythropoietin gene in the kidneys and liver, leading to increased levels of endogenous erythropoietin. This educational activity will review the pathogenesis of anemia of CKD, best practices for accurate diagnosis of anemia of CKD, and emerging therapies and their potential impact on the treatment landscape for anemia of CKD.

Target Audience

The intended audience for this activity is nephrologists, family medicine physicians, internists, and other health care professionals involved in the management of patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease.

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this activity, participants should be better able to evaluate the pathophysiology of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Activity Chair

George L. Bakris MD, FAHA, FASN
Professor of Medicine
Director, American Heart Association Comprehensive Hypertension Center
University of Chicago Medicine
Chicago, IL


Ajay K. Singh, MBBS, FRCP, MBA
Senior Associate Dean, Postgraduate Medical Education, Harvard Medical School
Nephrologist, Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA


Ronald A. Codario, MD, EMBA, FACP, FNLA, RPVI, CHCP


Vindico Medical Education is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit Designation

Vindico Medical Education designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

abimSuccessful completion of this CME activity enables the participant to earn up to 0.25 Medical Knowledge MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine’s (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. It is the CME activity provider’s responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.

Participants who opt-in will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity.

This enduring material is approved for 1 year from the date of original release, May 10, 2022, to May 9, 2023.

How to Participate in This Activity and Obtain CME Credit

To participate in this CME activity, you must read the objective, answer the polling and pretest questions, view the content, and complete the posttest and evaluation. Provide only one (1) correct answer for each question. A satisfactory score is defined as answering 100% of the posttest questions correctly. Upon receipt of the completed materials, if a satisfactory score on the posttest is achieved, Vindico Medical Education will issue an AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ certificate.


Vindico Medical Education adheres to the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education’s (ACCME) Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Education. Any individuals in a position to control the content of a continuing education activity, including faculty, planners, reviewers, or others, are required to disclose all relevant financial relationships with ineligible entities (commercial interests). All relevant conflicts of interest have been mitigated prior to the commencement of the activity.

Activity Chair and Faculty report the following relevant relationship(s)

George L. Bakris MD, FAHA, FASN
Advisor: Merck
Consultant: AstraZeneca, Bayer, DiaMedica Therapeutics

Ajay K. Singh, MBBS, FRCP, MBA
Consultant: GlaxoSmithKline

Reviewer reports the following relationship(s)

Ronald A. Codario, MD, EMBA, FACP, FNLA, RPVI, CHCP
No relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Vindico Medical Education staff report the following relationship(s)

No relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Signed disclosures are on file at Vindico Medical Education, Office of Medical Affairs and Compliance.

Unlabeled and Investigational Usage

The audience is advised that this continuing medical education activity may contain references to unlabeled uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved products or to products not approved by the FDA for use in the United States. The faculty members have been made aware of their obligation to disclose such usage. All activity participants will be informed if any speakers/authors intend to discuss either non–FDA-approved or investigational use of products/devices.

Copyright Statement

Created and published by Vindico Medical Education, 6900 Grove Road, Building 100, Thorofare, NJ 08086-9447. Telephone: 856-994-9400; Fax: 856-384-6680. Printed in the USA. Copyright © 2022 Vindico Medical Education. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without written permission from the publisher. The material presented at or in any of Vindico Medical Education continuing medical education activities does not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of Vindico Medical Education. Neither Vindico Medical Education nor the faculty endorse or recommend any techniques, commercial products, or manufacturers. The faculty/authors may discuss the use of materials and/or products that have not yet been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. All readers and continuing education participants should verify all information before treating patients or utilizing any product.

CME Questions?

Contact us at cme@vindicoCME.com